Afghan doctor challenges Gallup Poll claiming “nearly half of Afghan women would like to leave the country”

An Afghan woman in a burqa near Salang Tunnel, Hindu Kush mountains.
(Photo by Paula Bronstein/ for the Wall Street Journal)

Dr Khaula Bint e Abdul Aziz, who resides in Afghanistan, was not happy on reading an article by Julie Ray entitled, Inside Afghanistan: Nearly Half of Afghan Women want to leave, which she feels needs challenging. Ray highlights the findings of a recent Gallup poll stating the following,

  • A record-high 41% of all Afghans say they would like to leave
  • Women account for rising numbers who would like to migrate
  • 47% of Afghan women would leave if they could

See link below,

https://news.gallup.com/poll/266897/inside-afghanistan-nearly-half-afghan-women-leave.aspx

On the morning of election day, strongly opposed by the Taliban, Dr Khaula Bint e Abdul Aziz (who does not intend to vote) provides an opposing view of life for women in Afghanistan. She has spent time in the west but states she has no desire to relocate and writes as follows:-

“Nearly half of Afghan women want to leave the country”: A Big Fat Lie!

A recent Gallup surveys show that ‘’nearly half of Afghan women would like to leave the country.”

The media dishes out what they are dictated. With America on its knees now and letting out its frustration by bombing weddings, of course such Gallup polls would be a good distraction.

Afghans love Afghanistan, they are proud to be Afghanis. Their emotions are not only driven by strong feeling of patriotism but also because they consider Afghanistan as a citadel of Islam. Decades ago this dream did come into realization with Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan establishing sharia law/Islamic doctrine throughout the country. That was a glorious era. The country was full of peace and Afghan men and women enjoyed complete freedom within the limits set by Allah. Muslims from all over the world were pouring into this fresh, new born Emirate with an enthusiasm to help rebuild. Even finance companies of non-Muslims were interested in investing in this fertile country full of minerals and other resources. I wish a Gallup survey had been done then, I am sure it would read along the lines of ‘”nearly half of the Muslim world wants to reside in Afghanistan.”

You might be wondering who am I to challenge this ‘’un-biased survey’’? Well, I belong to an Afghan family residing in the heart of Afghanistan. I have been around the country and have met hundreds if not thousands of rural and urban Afghan women. I live with them, eat with them and they freely express their inner thoughts to me. Afghan women love their country and they love Islam. They are proud of their culture and they are loyal to the warriors of Islam who are the saviours of Afghanistan. So I decided to ask Afghan women from various parts of Afghanistan, would they like to leave this war torn country? Unlike the above Gallup survey which must be funded by international powers in order to get their desired results, my survey is self-initiated with a desire to state the truth because as a Muslim I stand for truth and never ‘’take crap from anyone’’.

Here are the results summarised:-

Afghan women residing in remote, rural and urban areas unanimously state that they would like to stay in this land of their forefathers, although they would love to visit Pakistan more often to see family members also located there. Most are residing in the Taliban controlled areas. I further inquired of them, would they like to see Taliban rule replaced by some kind of Kabul style government? They strongly rejected this, instead they expressed a desire to rekindle the glorious era of Emirates. Let me quote here their words as follows,

‘’We are Afghanis and this is our land. We have the right to live here the way we wish, similarly as Americans live freely in their country. The right of freedom of our grandparents was taken away by Russians and now our rights are being snatched away by Americans. Why they don’t leave us alone? If we have a problem in our country then let us solve it, why did you invade our country and for the last 18 years or so you are trying to ‘’teach us’’ how to live by bombing our homes and killing our children, women and men.’’

The Gallup survey further stated, ‘’a fight for the rights and dignity of women’’, they claimed that Afghan women were the least satisfied women in the world with regarding the freedom to choose what they do with their lives. So, I asked a group of Afghan women, whose spokesperson said,

‘’We don’t know what they mean when they talk about freedom. We are slaves of Allah. We offer complete submission to Allah and His laws. We are free to worship Allah and in this we are not restricted by our men, instead they encourage us. Our homes are our kingdom and we are the queens of this kingdom and we are treated like queens by our men. We don’t have to go out like other women to make a living, All Praise to Allah our respected men have kept us away from such ordeal. However, if needed we do work in fields beside our men, fetch water and perform small jobs outside our four walls without any fear. We are free to visit friends and family, we enjoy family gatherings. We feel at ease in our own village. People of same village are like one big family and we have very strong family system where men and women respect each other and try to execute their duties fearing Allah only. So I am surprised when they say Afghanis would prefer to live in America, Turkey or any other country. We don’t even feel comfortable when we go to any nearby village and wish to return to our own village as soon as possible. We are encouraged to learn Islam and many of us have opened madrassas for girls at home to spread the light of Islam. Some of us are involved in small businesses run at home and we make our own money and our men don’t ask us for money but encourage us to spend it the way we wish. If we get sick our men try their best to provide us with health care. So, why would we wish to leave this blessed land? What else is freedom?’’

Another false claim by this Gallup survey was that Afghan women are fearful that they would lose what freedoms they do have as the Taliban continues to take more control over their country. So here is what Afghan women have to say,

’With invaders came bloodshed and crimes. We are dying to see a peaceful moment in this land. Americans are barbaric. They bomb our children, women and elders. We are living under continuous fear day and night. Our men cannot come home to us. However, when we hear the good news that Taliban by help of Allah have taken control of more areas, a ray of hope rekindles in our hearts that if Allah wills soon our heroes will force oppressors out of this country forever.’’

An old lady raised a good point. She said that if this was true that Afghan women are living an oppressed life under Taliban control as claimed by media then why would their women stay loyal to them and look after their children, cattle and property when Taliban are gone for months fighting enemies of Allah. They have a chance to run away to these NGO’s and shelter homes opened and publicised as ‘’freedom homes for Afghan women’’. But the truth is that they wait anxiously for their men, they pray to Allah to give victory to Taliban, and they ask Allah’s punishment and wrath on enemies of Islam.

END

Carol Anne Grayson is an independent writer/researcher on global health/human rights/WOT and is Executive Producer of the Oscar nominated, Incident in New Baghdad.  She was a Registered Mental Nurse with a Masters in Gender Culture and Development. Carol was awarded the ESRC, Michael Young Prize for Research 2009, and the COTT ‘Action = Life’ Human Rights Award’ for “upholding truth and justice”. She is also a survivor of US “collateral damage”.

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Contaminated Blood: Carol Grayson’s response to Jason Evan’s podcasts on destruction of documents and knowledge of hepatitis C

His Honour Michael Brooke QC who wrote an opinion for haemophiliac Peter Mossman on hepatitis C infection through factor concentrates in April 1989

(Image courtesy of The Times)

Jason Evans (Factor 8 Campaign group) has recently released 2 Podcasts on Youtube entitled, “Dr Rejman and ACVSB Parts 1 and 2” which stands for Advisory Committee On The Virological Safety Of Blood.

In the Podcasts Evan’s discusses how they relate to the Contaminated Blood scandal in which thousands of UK haemophiliacs became infected with HIV and hepatitis B and hepatitis C through plasma treatment named factor concentrates taken for an inherited bleeding disorder. He discusses the destruction of ACVSB documents with the relevant dates and attempts to relate this to events in and outside of the UK that occurred during the same time period. The Podcasts can be heard here,

https://www.factor8scandal.uk/podcasts/2019/9/13/episode-1-dr-rejman-amp-acvsb-part-1

https://www.factor8scandal.uk/podcasts/2019/9/20/episode-1-dr-rejman-amp-acvsb-part-2 

Evans states on the group’s Facebook page that, “we would really welcome all feedback on this” so this is my response with particular focus on Podcast 2.

My response to First Podcast

The main point I want to make on the first podcast is that long before the Dr Rejman and Dr Pickles documents from the late 1980s to which Evans refers regarding knowledge of hepatitis C (also referred to as hepatitis Non-A, Non-B), haemophiliacs were being studied in some details from the 1970s regarding their exposure to hepatitis viruses through factor concentrates. Fortunately I aquired some of these studies unredacted many years ago which are now being submitted to the Infected Blood Inquiry. Often what was published with regard to haemophiliacs including on hepatitis C tended to play down the dangers and severity whereas the unpublished minutes of United Kingdom Haemophilia Centre Doctors Organization (UKHCDO) and raw data documentation and research is more explicit in the concerns and describes how patients (and sometimes their relatives) were being studied in a series of investigations that attracted significant funding. So I would argue although interesting their comments are, they form part of a long line in the chronology of written statements regarding concerns over the dangers and impact of this virus which were often not fully relayed to patients or public bodies.

My response to Second Podcast

Firstly throughout the second podcast Evans uses my terminology regarding the inclusion of a hepatitis “Undertaking” in the 1991 HIV litigation which I nicknamed “the waiver” back in 1994. The government and solicitors acting for haemophiliacs usually refer to the official name which is the Undertaking and was a legal means of ensuring that those infected with hepatitis C (who were also infected with HIV) could not take further legal action for any hepatitis infection.

Although as Evan’s highlights the comments of Dr Rejman support the push NOT to inform some parties including the Haemophilia Society about concerns over hepatitis C infection (which we have highlighted repeatedly over many years, as it happened repeatedly during the 1991 HIV litigation)… a lot of Jason’s comments re destruction of documents are assumptions. Evan’s focuses much of his attention on legal and criminal actions that were happening outside the UK in France and Canada. However, he appears to have total disregard or ignorance of what was actually happening legally and campaign wise during the same time period by the haemophilia community in the late 1980s to mid 1990s WITHIN the UK which may also have affected whether documents were maintained or destroyed.

Evans ignores the work of a core group of long standing and committed UK haemophiliacs and their families and MPs that were actively campaigning as though the campaign groups, Birchgrove, Manor House Group, Haemophilia Action UK and Colette Wintle (independent campaigner) didn’t exist back then. Colette was not only raising concerns over hepatitis C infection in females with a bleeding disorder in the UK but was an early guest speaker on this issue at an international haemophilia conference in the Netherlands highlighting her case.

My campaign colleague, haemophliac Peter Mossman began his LEGAL challenge for hepatitis C infection in 1989 and was supported publicly by his MP who happened to be Lord Morris of Manchester (First Minister for Disabled Persons) who raised some of the first questions in parliament on behalf of his constituent and also my late husband Peter Longstaff and I and Colette.

The launch of Mossman’s legal case PRECEDED the 1991 waiver in the HIV litigation and would have alerted government to the potential of further litigation which they were concerned about ALREADY as documents show that were part of the HIV litigation. Mossman had aquired his first legal opinion on April 25th 1989 from his then QC Michael Brooke who also advised in the HIV litigation. What is deeply disturbing is that Brooke was part of a legal team which failed to notify HIV litigants of the dangers of Non-A, Non-B (hepatitis C) despite the fact that many of the documents in the HIV litigation referred to studies already carried out on haemophiliacs. This was the same legal team that encouraged haemophiliacs to sign a hepatits waiver and failed to study and include all the relevant documentation on HIV according to a solicitor’s note in December 1990 which can be read on the following link,

https://activist1.blog/2019/09/20/contaminated-blood-us-legal-depositions-from-expert-witnesses-used-to-help-win-haemophilia-cases-released-to-uk-infected-blood-inquiry/

I supported Mossman’s case that was passed from pillar to post through several firms of solicitors and accompanied him to visit their offices and later to visit his QCs during which I presented supporting evidence on hepatitis C from the HIV litigation. Time after time we stopped the case from being closed down with addition documents. Eventually Mossman’s solicitors did not want me present as it appeared they were determined to shut down the case and as soon as I was absent that is exactly what happened much to Mossman’s distress. Yet a recent opinion of solicitors reviewing his case highlighted that Mossman had a good chance of winning his case! Mossman has given me full permission to use his documents as required. The legal papers and evidence are now passed to Milner’s solicitors allowing Colette Wintle and I full and unredacted access.

Brooke QC states the following in his April 1989 opinion to Mossman, which is part of a longer opinion:-

3) At least prior to 1985, a lot of the factor VIII prescribed here was from the U.S.A and had been manufactured from blood collected there or, possibly, other places such as Central America. The pool of blood donors in the U.S.A includes homosexuals and drug abusers and the method of collection by purchase tends to encourage at least the latter group to offer their blood. Drug abusers are a high-risk group in terms of blood contamination.

4) From the mid-1970s governments expressed the intention of making the U.K. self-sufficient in home-produced Factor VIII. This would involve substantial expenditure on the blood transfusion service. As I understand it, the U.K. is still not self-sufficient in home produced Factor VIII.

5) As I understand the position from my work on cases of AIDS-contaminated haemophiliacs, the risk of factor VIII being contaminated by hepatitis and the consequent danger to users of being infected with Hepatitis were known in the 1970s and it was known soon after that heat treatment of factor VIII removed this risk.

6) It seems to me that the heads of possible complaints we have have identified in the AIDs cases may equally arise in a hepatitis case. Those heads are as follows.

i. Delay in achieving self sufficiency in Factor VIII

ii. Failure to screen donors

iii. Using bought blood as opposed to donated blood

iv. Delay in heat-treating Factor VIII

v. Inadequacy of warnings in data sheets

vi. Delay in providing heat-treated Factor VIII

vii. Providing non-heat treated Factor VIII, after heat-treated was obtainable, available

viii. Failing in mild cases to avoid Factor VII and use DDAVP or cryprecipitate

ix. Failing in serious cases to stop using Factor VIII or to let the patient make a choice

x. Failing to warn haemophiliacs of the risks inherent in using non heat treated Factor VIII and to give appropriate social and sexual warnings

xi. Failing to blood test haemophiliacs more frequently

A Hepatitis case should be stronger than an AIDS case because the risk of hepatitis contamination was known some years earlier.

Mossman’s 1989 case was followed by further legal cases being initiated by hepatitis C positive haemophiliacs without HIV and the setting up of the Manor House Group (MHG) in 1994.

Years later in 2011, Mossman told the Wythenshawe Reporter,

“Our bodies are constantly being battered by different viruses,” says Peter.”Hepatitis is a really debilitating problem. I have pains all the time with this and I have also been told I am at risk from the human form of mad cow disease. I also have fybro myalgia which really saps your energy. It attacks your immunity and your body feels as though it’s been kicked and it is linked to hepatitis c.

 “What angers me most of all is that in 1985 I should not have been given the products that caused this. There were warnings galore. If I was given the choice of taking these things knowing the risks or living with haemophilia, which I had done for 30-odd years, it’s obvious what I would. But we weren’t given a choice. I was medically raped.”

My late husband, Peter Longstaff and I also set up our campaign group Haemophilia Action UK at the same time as MHG in 1994. At that time we were the first to highlight the hepatitis “waiver” and its implications, had also applied for LEGAL AID to overturn this, highlighted testing without permission and withholding of positive test results to government and were questioning the delay in HCV testing of blood compared to other parts of Europe. We were already fighting for a Public Inquiry into both HIV and hepatitis C infection and also highlighting the criminal cases in France as they occurred and the progress in Canada and the Krever investigation and subsequent report in meetings with our MP Jim Cousins and letters to the British government with demonstrations in London. I have a hard copy of the Krever report which was sent to me many years ago from Canadian campaign associates.

We know from government responses in writing at that time they were fully aware of our fury at the waiver and that campaigners were determined to highlight how the dangers of hepatitis C infection was kept from HIV litigants. Therefore it came as no surprise to discover early on that during this same time period government documents including those from ACVSB were destroyed “inadvertently” or otherwise!

Later in 1996 Haemophilia Action UK initiated our call for “compensation on a parity with Eire” a scheme which paid out on the grounds of “extraordinary suffering” WITHOUT admitting legal liability on the grounds of “loss and need”. This challenged the limited “ex-gratia” payment and begging bowl Macfarlane Trust scheme which was the UK response to the Contaminated Blood scandal.

Evans, who uses documents from his campaign colleague Andrew March (who failed to reference my research work and documents used to help him and his lawyers win a Judicial Review in his name in 2010) are totally ignoring the big legal push on hepatitis C IN this country from the late 1980s onwards and seem determined to write early campaigners out of the history books!

Neither March nor Evans were active campaigners at this time and appear in ignorance of what was happening during this period. They don’t appear to have an extensive back catalogue of campaign work from the 1990s so instead work on assumption with little consultation with those that did and prefer to work from fact.

The Birchgrove Group also produced newsletters and ran support week-ends for those infected with HIV from the late 1980s and were also just discovering in the 1990s (post HIV litigation) that the vast majority of their haemophilia members were co-infected with hepatitis C.

Referring to a government produced report of the year 2000 where Evans mentions the review of documents in relation to whole blood cases…  my late husband and I were also continuing to apply for access to legal and government documents and had been doing so for several years BEFORE 2000 and had acquired some documents by this time. Indeed Government highlighted the 2000 review in letters to us due to our repeated questioning in writing from the 1990s regarding missing and destroyed documents.

The later report Review of Documentation Relating to the Safety of Blood and Blood Products 1970 to 1985 (Non A, Non B hepatitis) May 2007 is a direct written response regarding copies of government documents I had returned to the Department of Health in 2006 giving instructions to Newcastle solicitor Paul Saxon of Blackett, Hart and Pratt. The report states this very clearly but disturbingly omits my name which I am instructing my current lawyers to take up with government. There is mention of the ACVSB files and their destruction in the 2007 report which states “relate to a period post 1985, after the introduction of heat-treated factor VIII and are therefore outside the scope of this review.” This report and many of my letters are now being submitted to the Infected Blood Inquiry chaired by Justice Langstaff and a team have been assigned to examine these documents.

LINKS

Pete Mossman interview with Unilad 2016

Carol Anne Grayson is an independent writer/researcher on global health/human rights/WOT and is Executive Producer of the Oscar nominated, Incident in New Baghdad.  She was a Registered Mental Nurse with a Masters in Gender Culture and Development. Carol was awarded the ESRC, Michael Young Prize for Research 2009, and the COTT ‘Action = Life’ Human Rights Award’ for “upholding truth and justice”. She is also a survivor of US “collateral damage”.

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Contaminated Blood: US legal depositions from expert witnesses used to help win haemophilia cases released to UK Infected Blood Inquiry

In the 1980s and 1990s, Arkansas prisons were working toward national standardization. In the 80s, it was discovered that the Arkansas Department of Corrections had been selling contaminated plasma from prisoners to other countries in order to make money. This practice was stopped in Like most prisons in the country, overcrowding became a problem in the 90s. Image: Arkansas prisoner giving blood. Retrieved from “Prison Reform In Arkansas”

A zipped file containing many key US legal depositions from expert witnesses and other documents used to help win haemophilia contaminated blood cases in America has been submitted to the UK Infected Blood Inquiry chaired by Sir Brian Langstaff. This was instigated on the instructions of UK litigant Carol Grayson to her lawyers, Leeds based solicitors’ firm, Milners.

Grayson and her (late) husband Peter Longstaff who was infected with HIV, hepatitis B and C and exposed to variant CJD through factor concentrate treatment initiated the UK legal case in America in 2003 by making contact with San Francisco law firm LCHB (Leif, Cabraser, Heimann and Bernstein) after consulting with US haemophilia campaigners.

Longstaff, a severe haemophiliac with less than 1% clotting factor was given imported US factor concentrates to treat his blood clotting disorder from the early 1970s after the UK failed to become self-sufficient in its own blood products and has never achieved that goal to this day. Plasma for factor concentrates was sourced from “high-risk” donors. This included prisoners from Arkansas and Louisiana state penitentiaries who were known to be beaten and tortured, “skid-row” donors, those from Central American countries such as Belize, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and including the island of Haiti. Gay donors were also targeted for their “hepatitis rich” blood which was used in research and to develop the hepatitis B vaccine… Incredibly any surplus plasma from the gay donors exposed to hepatis B was used to top up the plasma pools which could be as high as 60,000 donors.

Documents retrieved years later showed that Longstaff was part of controversial treatment trials which included US factor concentrates in 1973 at Treloar College, a school set up in Hampshire, England, to educate children with disabilities. His younger brother Stephen, also a haemophiliac that attended Treloar died of AIDS in 1986. As well as being guinea pigs in treatment trials, a number of former pupils alleged physical and sexual abuse at the college. Many haemophiliacs are now dead from HIV and hepatitis C related health problems after being infected through their American treatment.

Simon Birch, currently Data Protection Officer at Treloar wrote to Grayson after she applied for treatment records stating,

We wish you all the very best as you endeavour to uncover the truth about the causes of your husband’s and brother-in-law’s contamination. Our heart goes out to all the families of all the 72 young haemophiliacs treated at the centre who died as a result of this scandal and I genuinely hope that all who were involved in the catastrophic decision making that was undoubtedly the cause are called to account.

In order to pursue a legal case in the US, a meeting for haemophilia clients and relatives was set up by LCHB at Claridges in London back in 2003. The firm agreed to take on further cases highlighted by Grayson and Longstaff with additional meetings held in Manchester and Edinburgh.

In 2003, the BBC reported,

“Thousands of haemophiliacs have filed a lawsuit in the US against four companies for allegedly exposing them to the HIV virus by selling products made with contaminated blood.

The lawsuit alleges the companies continued distributing the blood-clotting products in Asia and Latin America in the 1980s, despite having stopped selling them in the US because of the known risk of passing on HIV and hepatitis C.

The four companies named are: Bayer Corporation, Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Armour Pharmaceutical Company and Alpha Therapeutic Corporation.

The lawsuit alleges that they purchased plasma from “the highest-risk populations, including prisoners, intravenous drug users and blood centres targeting promiscuous urban gays” and that they failed to exclude donors with a history of viral hepatitis

The lawsuit was filed less than two weeks after the New York Times accused Bayer of selling old stock of the medicine abroad, while marketing a newer, safer product in the United States.”

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/2960294.stm

Longstaff also received US treatment that should have been subject to a product recall as it included donors from the prison plasma centre at Arkansas during a period when it was closed down on the grounds of safety.

In order to esure as many haemophiliacs and their families as possible could participate in the litigation (providing they could produce the relevant treatment batch numbers and medical records) Grayson and Longtaff organized through their then lawyers Anderson Eden for a notice to be put in the press. They also had articles published via the UK Haemophilia Society Bulletin, took part in radio and TV interviews and released information via the Macfarlane Trust newsletter. The Trust was set up to provide financial assistance to haemophiliacs infected with HIV and their families and was supposedly established for life as part of the 1991 HIV haemophilia litigation under Justice Ognal. Recently however, the Trust was allegedly scrapped illegally and replaced by the English Infected Blood Support Scheme (EIBBS) without consulting with the longest standing campaigners as promised.

The case for haemophiliacs given US blood products was always deemed the strongest due to the high-risk, sourcing of plasma and the dumping of dangerous treatment on UK haemophiliacs. The case for those infected through UK plasma was put at only a 5% chance of winning by lawyers in legal documents in 199o.

However in a bizarre twist specifically related to those that had received US factor concentrates, a lawyer admitted in writing in 1990 to his colleagues that he was concerned that they had not sufficiently examined some crucial evidence pertaining to imported American treatment. This was essential in order to give claimants the best possible chance of winning their cases against UK authorities deemed as the first line of protection regarding a duty of care. The lawyer acknowledged solicitors were running out of time and wrote the following in December 1990,

This note evidences a radical change in my perception of the plaintiff’s prospect of success on establising breach of duty in negligence and, in so far as it is relevant Wednesbury unreasonableness. At the consultation held at 10th October 1990, I assessed the Plaintiff’s prospects of establishing common law breach of duty at no higher than the litigation risk which I put at 25%. I also advised that in terms of Wednesbury unreasonableness the plaintiffs prospects of success were so small as to defy sensible quantification.The purpose of this note is to explain why I am now of the view that the plaintiffs prospects of success have SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED both on breach of duty in negligence and Wednesbury unreasonableness and the consequential and favourable implications for causation.

He went on to say,

I am alive to what will be discussed in the course of the Consultation later today having had a telephone call from Michael at 00.45 this morning. Given the work that has been put into the preparation of the plaintiffs case by all counsel and the Steering Group I hesitate to inflict yet another note not least because there is rarely sufficient time to properly consider any note circulated immediately prior to or in the course of a Consultation. That said for reasons, which will become obvious, it is my duty to do so.

The solicitor then outlined in a document of numerous pages, the key evidence that had been omitted. This escalation in the prospect of winning and grounds for the change of opinion were never relayed to clients at that time.

A further solicitors’s note was discovered by Grayson years later in legal offices in Newcastle which stated, “I can no longer lie to my clients”!

Since that time period campaigners have themselves accessed a lot more evidence with regard to safety violations in the collection of US plasma which ought to have been sought at the time of the UK litigation.

In an e-mail to solicitor Ben Harrison dated September 4th 2019 Grayson wrote regarding the US depositions obtained from her former American lawyers LCHB,

Please send the US LCHB documents off today to the Inquiry in my name (as Pete’s living representative who inherited his case as his widow) a case we initiated with US lawyers LCHB many years ago on the back of Pete’s legal aid funding which we then opened up to several hundred other haemophiliacs who then joined our solicitor Denis Whalley (who was later struck off).

The Inquiry has now received the zipped file of relevant documents.

Fellow campaigner Colette Wintle, a female with a bleeding disorder infected with hepatitis C also instructed Milners to contact LCHB regarding her own case.

The US cases for UK haemophiliacs initiated by Grayson and Longstaff were sucessfully AUDITED by US lawyers as legal letters show and ACCEPTED by the US pharmaceutical companies with a token settlement which included a silence clause. The cases was finally closed to all UK haemophiliacs in 2009 however it kept open the possibility to sue UK authorities who by their own documents highlighted that they were well aware of both the high–risk sourcing of US plasma and the increased risks from imported treatment. Safety warnings to recall the US treatment and take it off the shelves were repeatedly ignored.

The cases filed by UK haemophiliacs in America were referred back to the UK courts (to fight for full compensation) on the grounds of “forum non conveniens” (not the right venue) and preceded by many years the recent contaminated blood cases filed by Collins Law solicitors of Watford now in the High Court. The cases back from the US are a continuation of the case started by LCHB and this is a separate case to the Collins Law litigation which is currently stayed during the course of the Infected Blood Inquiry.

The former LCHB cases are not dependent on the outcome of the Inquiry, depositions which we now possess have been used already to WIN cases in the US. The case here is even more serious due to the dumping of dirty treatment on the UK after it was deemed too dangerous to use in the US.

In Longstaff’s case he received US prison blood (some containing an HIV infected donor) after a plasma programme was closed down regarding gross safety violations. As documentary film-maker Kelly Duda (Factor 8: The Arkansas Prison Blood scandal) highlighted to Longstaff’s then QC, Stephen Grimes,

“The prison system remained unconstitutional in May 1980 when for 3 days Peter Longstaff infused several vials of Koate, the brand name of Cutter’s factor concentrate to stop a bleeding episode. He had no idea when he took his medicine from Lot no …. (stated) that it was made with the plasma of 297 inmates from Arkansas and an undetermined number of convicts from Avon Park, Florida.”

John Adervont a former inspector, a former Inspector and retired Director of Blood Center Licensing for the FDA remembered catching inmates performing phlebotomies at the Arkansas prison. Bill Douglas a former Arkansas inmate infected with hepatitis C, who sold plasma regularly at the time Longstaff infused Cutter …. stated, “They didn’t care. If you could crawl to get there you were able to give blood.”

“In July 1982, operators were forced to pay a $250,000 settlement after products made from tainted plasma were shipped to Europe. Two international recalls of contaminated plasma in the US, Canada, Spain, Italy, Switzerland and Japan were unsuccessful. The following year, the FDA shut down the operation and revoked its license when it was discovered that an inmate clerk had allowed diseased prisoners to donate. But after a six-month suspension, the center was up and running again with the full approval of federal regulators and the Clinton state leadership”.  

“Given the above information, and the fact that even before AIDS, the hepatitis rate among prisoners was estimated to be 30 to 60 percent higher than that of the outside population, it becomes clear that Peter Longstaff ard others like him should not have been advised to take medication made from sources like this.”

On February 9th 2006, Lord Alf Morris of Manchester then Minister for Disabilities followed up on the Arkansas prison blood evidence after Longstaff’s batch numbers were verified by US lawyers and the plasma companies. The following is taken from Hansard,

HIV: Contaminated Blood Products

Lord Morris of Manchester asked Her Majesty’s Government:

What representations they have received from Ms Carol Grayson concerning the death of her husband, a haemophilia patient, from HIV infection by contaminated National Health Service blood donors at Arkansas State Penitentiary; and what response they propose to make to these representations. [HL3584]

The Minister of State, Department of Health (Lord Warner): We have received several recent communications from Ms Carol Grayson about the import of plasma from the United States. We will be responding shortly. I will insure that a copy of the letter from Ms Grayson dated 14 January is sent to my noble friend.

https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200506/ldhansrd/vo060209/text/60209w02.htm

Lord Warner had earlier been highlighted by Grayson, Longstaff and Wintle for misleading parliament on the Eire settlement. Lord Archer who held a private Inquiry in 2007 in the UK into how haemophiliacs came to be infected with Contaminated Blood had recommended that the British government echo Grayson’s initiative from 1996 for “compensation on a parity with Eire.” In order to deny haemophiliacs the same level of compensation Warner falsely claimed the case in Eore was different suggesting Ireland had admitted legal liability with regard to haemophilia cases when it hadn’t. This was challenged in a Judicial Review won in 2010 by haemophiliac Andrew March using Grayson and Wintle’s evidence first sourced in 2004.

Going back to 2006, Warner failed to address both why Longstaff received US prison blood in the first place and secondly why this treatment wasn’t recalled in the UK when the Arkansas prison plasma programme was closed down on the grounds of gross safety violations.

Now with the US legal depositions from international experts that helped win American cases regarding the same treatment and batch numbers used on UK haemophiliacs and knowledge that key evidence was omitted from the 1991 litigation it is imperative that the former LCHB cases are now settled by the British government as a matter of urgency. As Liliana Segura highlighted in her 2017 article looking at the history of Arkansas State Penitentiary where Longstaff’s treatment originated,

In the 1969 expose, “Accomplices to the Crime: The Arkansas Prison Scandal,” former prison superintendent Tom Murton described the system as one of modern-day slavery, built upon “an ancient philosophy of retribution, corruption, exploitation, sadism and brutality.” Rather than pay civilian guards, the state relied on armed “trusties,” who violently enforced the state-ordered regimen of hard labor on fellow prisoners. Men were towed to the fields like cattle, harvesting crops under close supervision. Many compared it to a Nazi concentration camp.

Whippings were routine and legal in those years – and torture was an open secret. Especially notorious was an instrument called the “Tucker Telephone,” facilitated by so-called prison doctors at a penitentiary of the same name. As Murton described it, “An undressed inmate was strapped to the treatment table at Tucker Hospital while electrodes were attached to his big toe and to his penis. The crank was then turned, sending an electrical charge into his body. In ‘long distance calls,’ several charges were inflicted – of a duration designed to stop just short of the inmate’s fainting.”

and 

In 1970, a federal judge declared the whole Arkansas prison system unconstitutional, deeming it a “dark and evil world.

The problems within Arkansas State Penitentiary were made public in the media and the horrors of the system even inspired a film “Brubaker” starring Robert Redford based on Thomas Murton. Arkansas prison continues to this day to be regarded as problematic  and was hardly a safe and ethical place for British authorities to source treatment for the haemophilia community.

In the UK, victims continue to die every few days. Although the Infected Blood Inquiry is a step in the right direction giving victims some hope it will expose a long and complicated history of wrongdoing, bereaved relatives continue to exist on the breadline with surviving haemophiliacs and their families still denied the full and proper compensation they truly deserve.

Links

Law suit for infected blood 2003 (Guardian, June 4th 2003)

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/jun/04/aids

Haemophilia patients launch action against Bayer over contaminated blood products (BMJ 2003 326(7402) :1286

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1151015/

Bloody awful

How money and politics contaminated Arkansas’s prison plasma program.

Bloody awful

ARKANSAS JUSTICE: RACISM, TORTURE, AND A BOTCHED EXECUTION

https://theintercept.com/2017/11/12/arkansas-death-row-executions-kenneth-williams/

Carol Anne Grayson is an independent writer/researcher on global health/human rights/WOT and is Executive Producer of the Oscar nominated, Incident in New Baghdad.  She was a Registered Mental Nurse with a Masters in Gender Culture and Development. Carol was awarded the ESRC, Michael Young Prize for Research 2009, and the COTT ‘Action = Life’ Human Rights Award’ for “upholding truth and justice”. She is also a survivor of US “collateral damage”.

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Statement of Islamic Emirate regarding resumption of activities by ICRC in Afghanistan

Post via Islamic Emirate September 15th 2019

The Islamic Emirate had a number of issues with the quality and quantity of activities being carried out by the International Committee of the Red Cross in Afghanistan which forced the Islamic Emirate to suspend their activities and scrap the security guarantees which the Islamic Emirate has given to all committed NGOs in Afghanistan.

Following continuous contacts and discussions between officials of the Islamic Emirate and heads of ICRC in the capital of Qatar, Doha, both parties consented to following the old agreement on top of new promises in humanitarian aid leading to the Islamic Emirate granting ICRC permission of resuming their activities.

With publication of this statement, the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan restores the former security guarantees to ICRC in Afghanistan and instructs all Mujahideen to pave the way for ICRC activities and be mindful of security to this committee’s workers and equipment.

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan

17/01/1441 Hijri Lunar

24/06/1398 Hijri Solar                 15/09/2019 Gregorian

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Carol Anne Grayson is an independent writer/researcher on global health/human rights/WOT and is Executive Producer of the Oscar nominated, Incident in New Baghdad.  She was a Registered Mental Nurse with a Masters in Gender Culture and Development. Carol was awarded the ESRC, Michael Young Prize for Research 2009, and the COTT ‘Action = Life’ Human Rights Award’ for “upholding truth and justice”. She is also a survivor of US “collateral damage”.

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Islamic Emirate: Who is responsible for the continuation of war?

Post via Islamic Emirate September 13th 2009

The American invasion of Afghanistan and the imposed war upon our believing nation has completed its eighteenth year. Over the course of this period, three successive US presidents (Bush, Obama and Trump) have employed various military strategies – from changing generals to altering troop numbers, intelligence and propaganda techniques and exerting political and religious pressure, nothing has been left untouched. Yet, the efforts of these eighteen years have proven futile and on the contrary, the Afghan resistance has only grown fiercer, the human and economical toll of US has grown larger and their political prestige has taken an irreversible hit.

When a formula consistently fails for eighteen years, it means that it is wrong and another method must be undertaken. The political leadership of the United States had recently keyed in on this point and Trump began giving precedence to dialogue and understanding after the failure of his military strategy. The Islamic Emirate – who have always given precedence to peaceful resolution and even showed readiness to negotiate with US prior to the invasion – entered dialogue and negotiations with utmost seriousness by assigning a notable and influential delegation and following through with this process for the past nine months.

After the text of the agreement was finalized during nine rounds of talks over this nine-month period, the US president Donald Trump announced that this agreement was unacceptable to him and suspended the negotiations process.

As the Islamic Emirate followed through with this process with utmost seriousness and used all its power for its success in order to bring an end to this war, this only serves as proof that the Islamic Emirate is sincerely committed to peace. On the other hand America – already shouldering the burden of igniting this war with a military invasion – has also shown that she and specifically Donald Trump are the ones who are now responsible for the continuation of war and bloodshed.

Those organizations, individuals and media outlets that treat the issue of war sentimentally, support slogans of humanitarianism and always proclaim the Islamic Emirate responsible for war and civilian casualties, hereafter they must place the entire blame for the tragedies and losses of this war on Donald Trump because all nations and the international community observed how he carelessly shattered the hopes of peace of the Afghan and American people and authorized the prolongation of the longest war in American history.

The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan exerted all efforts for the security and prosperity of its nation and gave everything at its disposal for the success of the negotiations process. But as the opposite side unilaterally cancelled this process without a clear reason, it only shows that those who began this war do not wish to see it end therefore they now bear the responsibility of continuing this war just as they started it.

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Carol Anne Grayson is an independent writer/researcher on global health/human rights/WOT and is Executive Producer of the Oscar nominated, Incident in New Baghdad.  She was a Registered Mental Nurse with a Masters in Gender Culture and Development. Carol was awarded the ESRC, Michael Young Prize for Research 2009, and the COTT ‘Action = Life’ Human Rights Award’ for “upholding truth and justice”. She is also a survivor of US “collateral damage”.

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Islamic Emirate: Afghanistan in the month of August 2019

Post via Islamic Emirate September 13th 2019

N.B. This article consists of only those incidents which are admitted and confirmed by the enemy too. But it is worth mentioning that the real amount of losses and casualties suffered by the foreign occupying forces and their internal mercenaries are several times higher than those admitted by them. These and other related developments can be read on the official website of the Islamic Emirate on regular basis.

In August 2019, Mujahidin launched their attacks in various parts of the country especially in the southern areas, in which several districts and enemy bases were liberated and conquered. During this month, a significant number of foreign occupying forces were killed and wounded. In addition, two rounds of peace talks were also held by members of the Political Office of the Islamic Emirate and the American representatives in Qatar. These and some other related topics are discussed under the following captions:

Losses and casualties of the foreign occupying forces:

During August, the foreign occupying forces suffered heavy losses and casualties, though only two or three incidents were admitted and confirmed by them, but in reality more than twenty foreign invaders were killed and wounded in this month.

On Wednesday 7th August, a military convoy of the foreign occupying forces became the victim and target of a huge blast in ‘Dand’ district of Kandahar province, in which, a number of enemy forces were killed and wounded.

On Wednesday 21st August, the foreign occupying forces reported that two of their soldiers were killed in Afghanistan.

On the following day, four foreign occupying forces were killed in ‘Almaar’ district of Faryab province.

On Saturday 24th August, the foreign occupying forces came under a severe and fatal attack of Mujahidin in ‘Bagram’ district of Parwan province, in which eleven American forces were killed and wounded.

On Friday 30th August, the killing of another foreign soldier was reported.

Losses and casualties of the internal mercenary forces:

In fact, losses and casualties of the internal enemy is beyond covering, but in the following lines only a handful examples out of a heap are discussed which were mainly suffered by the intermediate level forces.

On Saturday 3rd August, the head of ‘Zanda Jan’ district in Herat province was killed by Mujahidin.

On Wednesday 21st August, a jet fighter was hit and brought down by the heroic Mujahidin of the Islamic Emirate in ‘Do-Aab’ district of Samangan province.

On Saturday 24th August, the head of ‘Farsi’ district in Herat province was killed by Mujahidin.

On the following day, the director of first zone of police force was killed in a successful attack of Mujahidin in Logar province.

On the same day, a member of the provincial council of Samangan province was killed by some unknown people.

On Tuesday 27th August, a commander of the notorious Arbaki militiamen was killed by Mujahidin in Jozjan province.

On the following day, another head of the unrestrained Arbaki militiamen was killed in ‘Parchaman’ district of Farah province.

Losses and sufferings of the civilian people:

Suffering and torture of the innocent civilian people by the foreign occupying forces and their internal mercenaries were as incessant as usual. This time, our innocent masses were not spared to enjoy and celebrate even their ‘Eid’ festival in a peaceful and happy way.

On Sunday 11th August, it was the very first day of ‘Eid’ but even then two aged and white-bearded civilians were martyred by the mercenary forces of the stooge admin near the center of Logar province.

On Friday 16th August, nine innocent people including women and children were ruthlessly martyred in the indiscriminate drone strike of the foreign occupying forces in ‘Gilaan’ district of Ghazni province.

On Monday 19th August, two civilian people were blasted in landmines by the (so called) special national security forces in ‘Daud Khail’ area near the center of Logar province. The ‘Tolo’ News agency published a report, which cited while quoting members of the bereaved family that the national security forces raided their house at midnight. They forced two members of the family (Mohammad Amin who had recently returned from Saudi Arabia, and his 16-year old son) to sit on mines and then blasted them. Mohammad Rahim (father of Mohammad Amin) told Tolo News that his son and grandson were completely innocent and had committed no crime, but they were torn into pieces by the security forces. This tragic incident was confirmed by the security chief of Logar province by adding that a team has been assigned for investigation as details of this tragic incident will be shared with media subsequently.

On the following day, eight innocent nomadic people including women and children were ruthlessly martyred in ‘Azra’ district of Logar province.

On Friday 23rd August, a wedding ceremony was indiscriminately attacked by the brutal joint enemy forces in ‘Chak’ district in Maidan Wardak province, in which fifteen civilian people were martyred and wounded.

On Sunday 25th August, a Mulla Imam (a religious figure who leads congregational prayers) and some innocent local farmers were martyred in ‘Mosahi’ district of Kabul province during the indiscriminate night operations of the brutal enemy.

And on the last day of August, a health clinic was destroyed by the brutal joint enemy forces in Laghman province, in which five civilian people were martyred.

For further details of losses and sufferings of the innocent civilian people, one can read monthly reports of ‘Special Commission of the Islamic Emirate for the prevention of civilian losses and casualties’ regularly published on its official website.

‘Al-Fatah’ Jihadi Operations:

‘Al-Fatah’ Jihadi operations were successfully going on in nearly all parts of the country, which had tremendous achievements for Mujahidin. In the following lines some instances are elaborated.

On Thursday 1st August, a meticulous attack was carried out on a police post in the first circle (zone) of Kabul city, in which all six policemen present there were killed.

On Monday 5th August, fourteen policemen were killed by an infiltrated Mujahid in ‘Shah Wali Kot’ district of Kandahar province.

On Tuesday 6th August, another fatal motor bomb attack was carried out on a recruitment center of the mercenary police force in Kabul, in which several enemy forces were killed and wounded. Spokesman of the Islamic Emirate ‘Zabihullah Mujahid’ told that the series of urban attacks has been launched in retaliation to the blind and brutal attacks and military operations of the joint enemy forces in rural areas of the country in which innocent civilian people are ruthlessly martyred and injured without any discrimination.

On Saturday 10th August, ‘Dai-Chupan’ district in Zabul province was liberated and controlled by Mujahidin.

On Thursday 22nd August, a huge mine of ‘lapis-lazuli’ (a precious stone) was captured by Mujahidin in ‘Kiran-o-Minjan’ district of Badakhshan province.

On the following day, the notorious ‘campaign forces’ of the stooge enemy was targeted in a huge motor bomb blast in ‘Mandozi’ district of Khost province, in which, a large number of these forces were killed and wounded.

On Saturday 24th August, a strategic center of the stooge enemy forces was captured by Mujahidin in ‘Nahr-i-Shahi’ district of Balkh province.

On Wednesday 28th August, several military posts of the enemy forces were conquered by Mujahidin in ‘Qarghan’ district of Faryab province.

On Friday 30th August, a key center and several military posts of the stooge enemy forces were cleared and captured by Mujahidin in ‘Chah-i-Aab’ district of Takhar province.

And on the following day, the above district was completely conquered by Mujahidin.

On Saturday 31st August, huge attacks were launched by Mujahidin of the Islamic Emirate on the northern Kunduz province, in which several areas were captured, and a military contingent along with all its personnel and military equipment surrendered to Mujahidin. This fighting continued for several days, in which large number of enemy forces were killed and wounded and a huge amount of military equipment was confiscated by Mujahidin. In addition, during these operations, a martyrdom seeking attack was also carried out on the stooge enemy, in which, a large number of the mercenary forces were killed and wounded. This fighting came to an end when the foreign occupying forces intervened for direct participation in the confrontation.

These were only a handful examples of the tremendous achievements of ‘Al-Fatah’ Jihadi operations. Further and complete details can be seen on the official website of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.

Peace Talks:

On Friday 2nd August, regarding peace talks between American officials and representatives of the Political Office of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan in Qatar, the daily ‘Washington Post’ wrote in one of its articles that American government is preparing for the withdrawal of its thousands of forces from Afghanistan.

On the following day, peace talks between the negotiating team of the Islamic Emirate and American side began in Doha which continued till Monday 12th of August. Both negotiating sides expressed their optimism for the outcome of this round of talks. But the American officials gave contradictory statements about the evacuation of their forces from Afghanistan at the end of this round of talks. In his response, spokesman of the political office of the Islamic Emirate ‘Sohail Shaheen’ told that the ongoing war will remain incessant until and unless the foreign occupation comes to an end.

On Thursday 22nd August, besides the above uncertainty, ninth round of peace talks started between the two sides which continued till the last moments of August.

Achievements of Democracy:

On Friday 2nd August, ‘Commission for Complaints’ of the stooge admin disclosed a big secret that government funds were misused by both leaders of the present heterogeneous setup Ashraf Ghani and Abdullah in their election campaigns, whereas no ruling authorities who are found involved in misusing the government resources are eligible for contending elections.

On the other hand, media protection committee of the stooge admin in Kabul (though the stooge setup considers itself committed to democracy) reported that thirty seven incidents of different level of violence of the stooge officials and forces of the puppet regime against the reporters have been registered with this committee.

The abscondence and surrender of internal forces:

The incessant success of Mujahidin on both military and political fronts and the simultaneous abscondence and surrender of its military and police forces have deeply shaken the moral of the stooge admin in Kabul.

Based on a report published by SIGAR (Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction) on Friday 2nd August, forty two thousand mercenary forces have left the puppet regime by now.

According to another news published on the same date, deputy head of ‘Muaqar’ district in Badghis province has joined Mujahidin along with his several armed personnel.

On Saturday 31st August, a whole contingent of the mercenary army of the stooge admin surrendered to Mujahidin of the Islamic Emirate in the wake of their huge attacks in the heart of Kunduz province.

Confession of failure:

On Friday 23rd August, head of the stooge admin in Kabul Ashraf Ghani declared openly as he was feeling no shame that their mercenary forces were fighting proxy war for the protection of world powers. This bitter reality is confessed and acknowledged by the stooge setup while the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan is incessantly fighting for the last nineteen years against the foreign occupying forces and their internal mercenaries by considering and proving itself as the freedom fighter and defender of our beloved country, and its pious people.

Carol Anne Grayson is an independent writer/researcher on global health/human rights/WOT and is Executive Producer of the Oscar nominated, Incident in New Baghdad.  She was a Registered Mental Nurse with a Masters in Gender Culture and Development. Carol was awarded the ESRC, Michael Young Prize for Research 2009, and the COTT ‘Action = Life’ Human Rights Award’ for “upholding truth and justice”. She is also a survivor of US “collateral damage”.

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Islamic Emirate: Message to the Kabul administration

Post via Islamic Emirate September 11th 2019
Last Monday night the courageous Mujahideen of the Islamic Emirate conducted a deadly attack on Green Village in Kabul. Before this, attacks took place against the provincial capitals of Baghlan and Kunduz. The Mujahideen took control of about 80% of Kunduz city while hundreds of puppet soldiers met a humiliating death and dozens were injured in these assaults along with large amount heavy and light weaponry obtained as war spoils. Note that the Mujahideen did not intend to establish full control over these cities as per their strategy.
Then alongside these events, the Mujahideen liberated Zari distict of Balkh province while in Takhar and Badakhshan, dozens of outposts and facilities were overrun. In Kohsan district of Heart, forty soldiers surrendered their weapons before the Mujahideen and, in the same manner, the Mujahideen continued gaining victories over the Kabul administration and invaders throughout the country rendering all schemes of their oppressive armies completely futile.
Foreigners in Kabul were struck with such ferocity that the Kabul authorities became hysterical. Following the attack, the area was completely surrounded and journalists were prohibited from entering. The puppets proudly claimed to have saved many foreigners in Green Village as though they had accomplished something praiseworthy. Also, according to their false assertions innocent civilians had been killed in the attack. The dead civilians to whom they were referring are in fact dozens of dead invaders that were part of an ongoing occupation of our land. This, of course, was prevented from appearing on the media and journalists were prohibited from visiting the site of the attack. Nevertheless, the Afghan public are well aware of all that took place. Whatever the Mujahideen have mentioned in the official statement conveys the reality of the incident. In this successful attack the enemy was heavily targeted and no civilians was deliberately hit. Besides, the public is not permitted to go to such areas.
Moving on, the message behind this deadly attack was as follows: the barbaric enemy ought to at least now, after almost two decades of unsuccessful use of violence, acknowledge that massacre, oppression and indiscriminate bombardment will not deliver it a victory of any kind. The enemy’s manner of attacking is one of blindly bombarding Afghans, making no distinction between unarmed civilians and armed Mujahideen. In nighttime raids, the homes of Afghan civilians are destroyed, their wealth and valuables looted while violence against women, children, youth and the elderly is rampant. This is because both the invaders and their quislings are well aware that Afghanistan and its Muslim people reject their presence and whatever package that presence brings.
It is only wise for the Kabul quisling administration to cease this horrific series of unjust violence against the Afghan public. They ought to make their decisions in accordance with ground realities and these ground realities have revealed that policies based on oppression cannot deliver to them any success. The enemies should refrain from their criminal activities otherwise further days of mourning await them.
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Carol Anne Grayson is an independent writer/researcher on global health/human rights/WOT and is Executive Producer of the Oscar nominated, Incident in New Baghdad.  She was a Registered Mental Nurse with a Masters in Gender Culture and Development. Carol was awarded the ESRC, Michael Young Prize for Research 2009, and the COTT ‘Action = Life’ Human Rights Award’ for “upholding truth and justice”. She is also a survivor of US “collateral damage”.
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